What is the situation on your board? Was it a new board, or did the board already have users, posts, etc.
A new phpbb_users table could be created in the database, but since it would not have the anonyomous user and the founder user in it, it would still be useless. When creating these users in that table it should be made sure that the user_id's match the user_id's that were in the table before, since those id's should match with other tables referring to that id.
In case your board was new/empty, it would be easier to drop the damaged database, create a new empty database and reinstall the board.