Inspired by Max Berry's book, Jennifer Government, NationStates is one of the most popular online simulation games. The forum boasts over 5 million posts and 200,000 users.
The VideoLAN project produces the extremely popular VLC media player software. Their forums provide support for users of the software as well as the development community.
Adblock Plus is one of the most popular Firefox Add-ons in the world, with over 10 Million daily users and over 100k downloads a day. They use phpBB to offer support to their users.
KDE is mainly known for producing the KDE Desktop Environment (used in Kubuntu) for Linux.
Zend Technologies is one of the largest and most popular companies producing a wide variety of tools and frameworks for PHP. Their community forums rely on phpBB.
Joomla is one of the leading open-source Content Management Systems. With a userbase of over 400,000, they use phpBB as a reliable platform for support.